"Tuko Wangapi? Tulizana" HIV Prevention Campaign
Concurrent sexual partnerships are defined as “overlapping sexual partnerships in which sexual intercourse with one partner occurs between two acts of intercourse with another partner.” This is believed to be a major driver of new HIV infection in Tanzania, where HIV prevalence is 5.1% among of adults age 15-49 (THMIS 2011-12). While most know that HIV can be prevented by limiting sexual intercourse to one, uninfected partner, this knowledge does not necessarily translate into behavior.
It was against this backdrop that the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) and the Tanzanian Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) together with the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (CCP) and Population Services International (PSI) through funding from USAID and KfW developed Tuko Wangapi? Tulizana (How many are we? Settle down), a national, multi-channeled social and behavior change communication campaign designed to reduce concurrent partnerships sexual partnerships.
Based on the latest HIV prevalence data, the campaign targeted sexually active men and women aged 25-39 with a moderate to high socioeconomic status who resided in urban and peri-urban areas. The campaign was grounded in the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM), which posits that the right amounts of perceived threat and perceived efficacy can lead to behavior change (Witte, 1992).
Using this theoretical framework, the intervention was designed in a phased approach:
- Phase I aimed to increase perceived threat by increasing knowledge of the risks of sexual network, and examining the health, social, emotional and other consequences of concurrency.
- Phase II focused on perceived efficacy, delving into concurrent partnership reduction by providing solutions and tips, and building skills in couple communication, and advice in ending existing and/or avoiding new concurrent relationships. This phase also actively promoted condom use and HIV testing and counseling.
The team conducted a one-week radio competition that solicited campaign name ideas from the listeners. The Task Force selected the most promising names from the 230+ entries, then concept tested the short-list with 12 focus groups. They assessed comprehension, attractiveness, acceptability, identification, and persuasion, and ultimately selected “Tulizana” (Settle down). This was the most preferred name because it “carried a warning” while also giving hope, called one to self-reflect, was unique, and was culturally appropriate for people of different marital statuses, ages and religions. In order to bring it in line with the theme of the winning concept and keep consistent with the theoretical framework, “Tuko wangapi?” (How many are we?) was added.