After the results of the 2012 THMIS survey were released in 2012, the Tanzania Capacity and Communication Project (TCCP) noted that curiously, while prevalence in malaria had gone down significantly, children still experienced fevers at a similar rate.
Before designing a campaign to address malaria testing, TCCP conducted a formative research study on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) to fill in an identified research gap. The gathered data revealed:
- Low knowledge of mRDTs
- Low usage of mRDTs
- High self-treatment behavior
- Low trust of mRDT results
- Unwillingness to pay for mRDTs
Following formative research and data-gathering, the Tanzania Capacity and Communication Project (TCCP) worked with the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) and the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) to design an SBCC campaign to address the myth that every fever is malaria, and to promote malaria testing before treatment.
TCCP used the Fogg Behavior Model (FBM) to guide the design of the campaign. The FBM posits that motivation, ability, and triggers need to be present and coincide for a behavior to occur. When a behavior does not occur, at least one of these elements is missing.
The campaign was designed to drive the two arms concurrently, dubbed “Je Wajua?, Sio Kila Homa ni Malaria” (Do you know?, Not every fever is malaria). It intended to communicate that a new testing tool for malaria that is safe, faster and quality approved is in the market and available from both public and private facilities (mRDTs had been just introduced), this arm focused on the product attributes to motivate clients with malaria like symptoms as well as providers to trust the results that it gives if one shows up at a health facility with fever. The Second arm which was dealing with behaviors, was meant to encourage clients with fever to seek health advice earl, to trust the results that mRDT gives and also adhere to instructions given by providers.
Using the FBM as a framework and with the results of formative research and national surveys in mind, the design team developed messages for two groups: clients and health providers.
Messages for health providers were developed within three categories:
- “trusting the mRDT results"
- “etiology of fever”
- “test and know how to test”
Messages for clients were developed within six categories:
- “trust the mRDT results”
- “test before treatment”
- “fever is not always malaria”
- “complete the dose”
- “on-time testing, on-time treatment”
- “mRDT quality: a new way of malaria testing”
Based on the groundwork of the available data and research, the FBM, and the developed messages, TCCP worked with partners to design a two-part campaign that:
- Increased knowledge of and address attitudes towards mRDTs by communicating that mRDTs are safe, fast, and high quality, and that they are available in the market from both public and private facilities. Messages emphasized that clients and providers alike can trust the results of mRDTs.
- Promoted testing behaviors, by encouraging audience members with a fever to seek health advice and testing early, to trust the results of mRDTs, and to adhere to treatment instructions given by providers.