The U.S. Government is the largest donor supporting Indonesia’s efforts to control H5N1 avian influenza (AI) and USAID plays a key role. USAID provides support aimed to reduce impact of H5N1 in Indonesia on animals and humans and limit the emergence of a pandemic influenza. Since 2005, USAID has provided more than $110 million to support API control and prevention in Indonesia.
Indonesia is uniquely vulnerable to HPAI and the emergence of new influenzas, due to its large population, high poultry density, and the close interaction of poultry with humans. Even though AI cases in animal and human were decreased, AI is endemic throughout the poultry sector in Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan, and sporadic outbreaks continue resulting in human fatalities. USAID activities strengthen pandemic preparedness, surveillance and response, laboratories strengthen, targeted communication campaign, and cleaning & disinfection in markets and along the poultry value chain, and training and educational opportunities in animal and human health fields. USAID, and partners support, a range of efforts aimed to improve animal and public health to prevention and control avian Influenza and opportunities for pandemics in partnership with GOI and other stakeholders, including the private sector.
Strengthening Role of GOI in Animal Surveillance and Response
USAID has made a major investment with the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) and local government livestock services to implement a village poultry surveillance, outbreak control and prevention system in partnership with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The Participatory Disease Surveillance and Response (PDSR) system provides district level veterinarians with the tool for rapid AI detection and response to contain the spread of disease within villages, and the approach is being adopted by GOI into the National Veterinary Service. In partnership with John Snow International (JSI), USAID has established a cold chain system for the poultry AI vaccination program in 16 districts in three provinces as a possible national model. Capacity building in cold chain management is also being done to support the model. USAID, in addition to short term training programs, is providing long term training to animal health officers to earn a Master’s degree in Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) and Veterinary Epidemiology which will help to sustain animal and public health surveillance activities. USAID together with other donors and international agencies will assist the GOI to coordinate, synergize, review and evaluate all programs on API prevention and control to ensure the program will have significant impacts.
Human Influenza Health Surveillance
USAID is building capacity with the Ministry of Health (MOH) to integrate human and animal surveillance and response through a program channeled and assisted by the World Health Organization (WHO). This program works to reduce human infections and also to improve survival outcomes by increasing suspect case detection to within 24 hours of an animal outbreak notification. Key activities are aimed to improve care seeking behavior and improve case management to reduce human fatalities. Health system strengthening efforts will ensure that hospitals are appropriately equipped and can provide adequate standards of care for severe respiratory infections. USAID is continuing to work with the MOH’s on establishing a program called Desa Siaga or Alert Village to prevent disease by reducing risky behaviors and supporting local care seeking behavior.
Poultry Chain Intervention
USAID is continuing work with FAO to build cleaning and disinfection capacity in urban markets to reduce AI spread, which is a priority for GOI and support their Healthy Market Program. Through support from USAID, FAO also provides technical assistance to high-risk layer farms to improve biosecurity and health, and is working to unite commercial poultry producers to support this goal. An effort is underway in Indonesia to restructure the poultry market chain to enhance public health in Jakarta FAO is a critical partner to the Ministry of Agriculture on this issue. USAID and FAO continue efforts initiated by Community Based AI Control (CBAIC) program and Strategies Against Flu Emergence (SAFE) to assist commercial poultry companies to improve their biosecurity practices and good farm management practices to prevent the spread of AI and other diseases. Additionally, efforts will continue to change risky behaviors within the poultry value chain, including farms, transport vehicles, live bird markets, collector yards, slaughterhouses, and communities at high-risk.
Behavior Change Communications
A core part of the USAID AI program includes community outreach and raising awareness, USAID continues to work closely with GOI to create a community based network which can integrate activities to prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. Working with FAO, USAID provides strategic efforts to the MOA in technical assistance and strengthen in-country HPAI communication capacities, competencies and leadership. A new program will be launched aimed to disseminate valuable health care information regarding influenza prevention and treatment and will seek to improve care seeking behaviors.
In collaboration with GOI, USAID supports the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)/FAO Networks of Expertise on Animal Influenza’s OFFLU project to characterize AI viruses in order to identify new strains and develop improved poultry vaccines. USAID supports CDC in collaboration with MOH in conducting research program on strengthen AI surveillance in certain high risk areas in Jakarta. USAID also will engage related partners for social and economic analysis on impacts of adoption and improvement of biosecurity in poultry commercial farms.