Avian & Pandemic Influenza Resources for Indonesia Toolkit
This eToolkit is a forum in which all stakeholders involved in Avian & Pandemic Influenza (API) in Indonesia can share key resources, best practices and lessons learned. By clicking the links on the sidebar to the right you can view the most current resources available.
Infection from H5N1, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus, has resulted in a high number of animal outbreaks and human case fatalities. Indonesia has the highest number of confirmed human cases of AI and one of the highest case fatality rates in the world, 83 percent as of 29 May 2012. While H5N1 is not readily transmitted among humans, the virus is endemic in animal populations in Indonesia, raising the possibility that H5N1 could at some point evolve into a form more easily transmissible between humans, causing a pandemic.
Most Indonesians rely on poultry for food, and many rely on poultry for their livelihood. In densely populated West Java province and Jakarta, the national capital, people’s lives are often intertwined with the poultry value chain. (Photo by CBAIC)
Chronology of Events:
2003, August. AI was first found in Indonesia in bird.
2004, February. First report of confirmed H5N1 poultry outbreaks in Indonesia. 11 provinces have infected by AI and vaccination for poultry was approved.
2005, July. The Indonesian Ministry of Health confirmed the first human case of the deadly H5N1 strain of avian influenza in the country – a poultry worker on the island of Sulawesi tested positive for the virus.
2005, December. Indonesia adopted a National Strategic Plan on AI Control.
2006, January. The International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Pandemic Influenza convened in Beijing; 100 countries participated, including Indonesia.
2006, March. KOMNAS FBPI, a ministry level committee headed by the Coordinating Minister for Social Welfare, was created by Presidential Decree No. 7/2006 on 13 March.
2006, May. A family of eight from North Sumatra fell victim to bird flu, which raised concerns that the H5N1 virus had transmitted from person to person.
2006, September. Indonesia launched a national campaign to raise public awareness about avian influenza. The Tanggap Flu Burung! Campaign informed Indonesians about how to reduce the risk of contracting the H5N1 virus. The campaign included television and radio spots, billboard advertisements, leaflets, and other media.
2007, January. Key ministers convened to roll out a plan to curb the spread of the deadly H5N1 avian influenza virus. Regional administrations asked to increase public awareness of the dangers of bird flu and to expand surveillance for outbreaks.
2007, February. Presidential Instruction No. 1/2007 was issued regarding prevention and control of the H5N1 virus in Indonesia.
2007, March. A national meeting was held to coordinate implementation of AI prevention and control efforts in accordance with Presidential Instruction No. 1/2007.
2007, May. KOMNAS FBPI personally distributed 100,000 kits of vital AI control information to villages in West Java province.
2007, August. First pandemic workshop held in Bogor under the leadership of KOMNAS FBPI.
2007, October. A national meeting was held in Bandung to review Case Management of Avian Influenza.
2007, November. National Consultation on Avian Influenza was held in Jakarta, attended by experts from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), major donor agencies, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. The objectives of the consultation were to review the AI situation, particularly in Indonesia, with respect to human risk and determinants of high mortality, to identify gaps in knowledge and strategic approaches, and to define the actions required to fill them.
2007, December. KOMNAS FBPI lead the first small−scale pandemic simulation exercise in Indonesia in Banten province just west of Jakarta, the national capital.
2007, December. KOMNAS FBPI participated in the International Ministerial Conference on Avian and Pandemic Influenza held in India. Resulting conference recommendations included strengthening national capacity to diagnose influenza in humans, expediting the development of national pandemic planning and response guidelines, and developing and implementing national pandemic preparedness plans.
2008, April. Coordinating Ministry of Social Welfare published the draft Influenza Pandemic Management Preparedness and Response Plan.
2008, April. First full−scale pandemic epicenter response simulation conducted in Jembrana, Bali.
2008, May. Indonesia participated in an Asia−Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting to coordinate implementation of pandemic influenza preparedness efforts with representatives of the private sector.
2008, July. Indonesia participated in a meeting of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) on regional pandemic preparedness and response planning. Indonesia was appointed head of the ASEAN technical working group for influenza pandemic preparedness and response.
2008, October. KOMNAS FBPI participated in the 6th International Ministerial Conference on Avian and Pandemic Influenza held in Egypt.
2008, August − November. KOMNAS FBPI conducted six non−pharmaceutical pandemic outbreak response desktop exercises and field simulations.
2009, June. World Health Organization raised the global pandemic alert to phase six, formally marking start of 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. KOMNAS FBPI worked closely with experts to build nation’s capacity to prevent emerging infectious diseases following One World One Health principles.
2009, June. Indonesian government introduced new strategies to cope with pandemic influenza and halt the spread of the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. Command and control post established to coordinate multisectoral response to the pandemic.
2009, June. Indonesia participated in the Global Pandemic Response: Improving International Coordination Conference held in the UK. It emphasized the importance of increasing the international response to protect essential non−health services sectors from the effects of pandemic.
2009, July. KOMNAS FBPI produced and distributed H1N1 information, education and communication material to the public describing flu prevention measures.
2009, September. A public health information campaign was launched for the prevention and control of influenza H1N1/2009 during the Lebaran holiday, which marks the end of the fasting month of Ramadan, when many Indonesians return to their hometowns. Campaign information was distributed via trains, buses, ships, and planes.
March, 2010. End of KOMNAS FBPI mandate, with a new government agency likely to take over the task of coordination in the future
May, 2011. National Commission (KOMNAS) Zoonotic was formed through Presidential Decree No. 30/2011. It took over the mandate of KOMNAS FBPI and expanded the scope of works to include other zoonosis diseases.
December, 2012. A new type of bird flu virus was found in Indonesia. It killed thousands of ducks in Central Java, East Java, and Yogyakarta.
Sources include: Indonesia National Committee for AI Control and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness, 2009, AI Prevention and Control The Indonesian Experience; Indonesia National Committee for AI Control and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness, 2010, The Evolution of Avian Influenza Communication in Indonesia: 2006-2010; WHO SEARO, 2007, Report of National Consultation on AI Meeting.