Evaluation can be done at national, institutional and program levels. When planning for evaluation at any level, it also is important to know about other existing plans at national and institutional levels. This section addresses program level monitoring and evaluation.

Evaluation occurs on multiple levels. Monitoring and evaluation plans typically document numerical statistics and certain key quality indicators. In addition to addressing the basics, add time to measure effectiveness of innovations that add to the global body of evidence. Evaluation activities should be coordinated across national, institutional, and programmatic levels with measurable indicators that provide useful data. The WHO Handbook on Monitoring and Evaluation addresses concerns faced by low- and middle-income countries when monitoring human resource for health issues.

Plan to monitor and evaluate program activities. Countries may conduct national evaluations of educational systems, and institutions may be involved in institutional evaluations, often through an accreditation process. Programs working to strengthen pre-service education should also monitor and evaluate their results to better understand what is and is not effective (Frenk and Chen, et al. 2010). Program monitoring and evaluation plans should be designed early and implemented throughout. These plans should identify which indicators relate to any existing human management information system (HMIS) or HRH plan and capture that data. Produce routine monitoring reports that document program progress and help inform the next year’s work plan. The illustrative indicators provide samples and links to resources for monitoring and evaluating pre-service education programs.

Develop and implement a documentation plan to capture program process, output, and lessons learned. Complementing the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) plan, a documentation plan needs to be developed to capture sufficient information to answer key programmatic questions. Knowing what is effective when implementing educational interventions is a critical for scaling up education. Even if program funding does not support large-scale studies, country case studies and success stories document what works and informs other programs.