This section examines the numerous integrated methods when working towards integration with health and development. There are a wide variety of methods or approaches which help increase likelihood of integration. In addition to the obvious such as holistic, fully integrated programs, these include the following:
- Layering: This is where separate programs or interventions may be added one at a time over time to serve the same beneficiary populations. For example, one might start with a TB control program, and then add HIV, nutrition, livelihoods, etc. all with separate programming funded by separate donors.
- Platforms: This might include something like the use of schools as a platform for reaching children not only with education, but also with good nutrition, health, environmental issues (WASH and restoration), food security (school gardens). In addition, whatever the kids are learning can be shared back at home and in the community, as well as community involvement through Parent-Teacher Associations.
- Cross-Referral Systems: For example, TB and HIV services may be going on in a community simultaneously, but each program may work to ensure that their target populations are tested and served for both TB and HIV.
- Providing Two or More Therapies or Services at Once: This might include, for example, provision of livelihood support at the same time as health education is provided. An example of this was PCI’s Planificando Juntos program where men were involved in the program through WASH activities and women through reproductive health activities but then, once together, the focus was on joint resource management, joint decision making.
- Combining Similar Activities for Efficiencies: An example of this would be training on multiple topics together or providing home based care that addresses the need of a chronically ill caretaker as well as the vulnerable children in the household. Important to note that monitoring for performance is necessary, which can be impaired by over-loading.
- Coordination and Collaboration: This includes joint planning or joint advocacy with individualized implementation or any number of means of coordination and collaboration across intervention areas or sectors.