Gender refers to the different roles men and women play in society and to the relative power they wield. Gender is expressed differently in different cultures, however, men and women do not perform equal roles or hold equal portions of power in all cultures.  Dealing with gender issues is considered an upstream approach to most health issues.  Gender inequality is a crucial constraint to poverty reduction and economic growth.  Enhancing women's participation in economic development aims to reduce gender disparities.  Gender also affects health outcomes such as reducing unintended pregnancies, transmission of HIV/AIDS, improving maternal health, etc.  The third Millennium Development Goal of promoting gender equality and empowering women is being worked towards by many in today's world, though there is still a long road ahead for gender equality.  Integrating gender into other health services would be impactful to all.  [i]