Given that anemia stems from multiple causes, it is important to review lessons learned from country programs that incorporated malaria or helminth control, which can also bring about reductions in anemia. Country experiences from Brazil, Eritrea, India, and Vietnam reveal that successful malaria control programs have common elements, including use of  multiple technical approaches including balanced case management and prevention, introduction of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs), targeted indoor residual spraying (ITS), and scaling up alternative vector control measures (Barat, 2006). A lead partner agency to provide technical and programmatic support, such as USAID Environmental Health project in Eritrea and PAHO in Brazil, was a key factor in achieving reductions in malaria burden. Although all countries had centrally managed, vertical strategies, significant integration and decentralization of responsibility and resources helped to move forward malaria control. In Eritrea and India, implementation shifted to zonal and state health authorities, while in Vietnam, government and malaria control staff were linked at the provincial, district, and commune levels.