In Depth Interview of Midwives in Kediri

A member of the ICMM team interviews a midwife for the ICMM baseline survey. Credit: Universitas Indonesia


The Improving Contraceptive Method Mix (ICMM) Project began in Indonesia in October 2012 and concluded in November 2016. Funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), with additional support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, this four-year project investigated the impact of applying targeted advocacy and knowledge management (KM) activities to improve the contraceptive method mix in two Indonesian provinces: East Java and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB).

The three major components of the ICMM project were:

  1. Collecting evidence about the use of family planning in the two study districts
  2. Advocating for the availability and use of quality family planning services – particularly long-acting and permanent methods (LAPMs) – in resource-poor areas
  3. Local capacity building for KM
ICMM Advocacy Working Group Members

ICMM advocacy working group members discuss their annual work plan during an annual knowledge sharing meeting. Credit: Sarah V. Harlan


ICMM brought together the experience and program strengths of local Indonesian organizations, using Advance Family Planning-Indonesia’s (AFP-I) methodology, and enhanced by the KM expertise and tools of the Knowledge for Health (K4Health) Project. ICMM was implemented under K4Health through CCP’s Indonesia office, drawing upon the technical skills of ICMM partners: The Center for Health Research at Universitas Indonesia and the Cipta Cara Padu Foundation. ICMM staff also work closely with the Directorate of Maternal Health from Indonesia’s Ministry of Health and the National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN) to implement the activities.

As a result of ICMM, the family planning field now has evidence that community-level advocacy is effective in improving programs. After three years of targeted advocacy efforts led by ICMM, funding for and uptake of LAPMs increased in six districts in East Java and West Nusa Tenggara. After the intervention, contraceptive users in ICMM districts began shifting away from shorter-acting methods towards LAPMs, as compared to users in control districts.

ICMM/AFP Knowledge Sharing Meeting

ICMM Project Manager/K4Health Learning Director meets with the District Head of Karawang, West Java, Indonesia, during the 2016 ICMM/AFP knowledge sharing meeting. Credit: Agung Arnita


Key outcomes from ICMM include:

  • Use of LAPMs in the ICMM intervention districts increased (1.12 times the odds in East Java and 1.31 times the odds in West Nusa Tenggara)
  • More than 1,400 “Family Planning Village Teams” have been revitalized and are using village budgets to support provision of family planning, particularly LAPMs; Village budget allocations for family planning increased by over 300% between 2014 and 2016
  • LAPM knowledge improved significantly in intervention sites compared to control sites – including knowledge of contraceptive methods to use for limiting

ICMM showed that advocacy is effective to reinvigorate FP programs, expand the method mix, and more fully meet the family planning needs of women in Indonesia. The program also improved capacity to help scale up this approach throughout the country. This district-level approach is already being scaled up by the Indonesian government and its partners, to help them achieve their Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goals and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

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