Review the Evidence
40 years of evidence; one comprehensive database
POPLINE is the world’s largest free database of family planning and reproductive health literature. An international resource, POPLINE helps program managers, policy makers, and service providers in low- and middle-income countries and in development-supportive agencies and organizations gain access to scientific articles, reports, books, and unpublished documents.
Open access, peer-reviewed journal
The Global Health: Science and Practice Journal also contains a wealth of peer-reviewed research on topics relevant to contraceptive security.
Read some of the latest research and commentary on public health supply chain systems:
- Arney L, Yadav P, Miller R, Wilkerson T. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014;2(3):295-306. Practices such as flexible, pre-established framework agreements can improve timeliness and cost of procurement and help improve commodity security. Addressing legislative barriers and building technical capacity in contract management may facilitate the use of such practices.
- Bornbusch A, Dickens T, Hart C, Wright C. A stewardship approach to shaping the future of public health supply chain systems. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014;2(4):403-409. Guiding Principles: (1) Governments should see themselves as stewards of supply chains, providing vision, guidance, and oversight, not necessarily as operators of supply chains. (2) Governments should not be afraid to leverage the multiple supply chain actors and diverse options available; these can be woven into a coherent, integrated system, providing flexibility and reducing risk. (3) Governments will need new skills in leadership, regulation, market research, contract design, oversight of outsourced providers, financial analysis, and alliance-building.
Read the latest evidence on ensuring contraceptive security in diverse settings:
- Cunningham M, Bock A, Brown N, Sacher S, Hatch B, Inglis A, et al. Estimating contraceptive prevalence using logistics data for short-acting methods: analysis across 30 countries. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2015;3(3):462-481. Three models showed strong correlation between public-sector logistics data for injectables, oral contraceptives, and condoms and their prevalence rates, demonstrating that current logistics data can provide useful prevalence estimates when timely survey data are unavailable.
- Daff BM, Seck C, Belkhayat H, Sutton P. Informed push distribution of contraceptives in Senegal reduces stockouts and improves quality of family planning services. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014;2(2):245-252. Dedicated logisticians restocked contraceptives monthly at facilities to maintain defined minimum stock levels, freeing up clinic staff. High stockout rates were virtually eliminated. Also, quality and timely data on contraceptives distributed allowed for better program management.
Evidence summaries: the HIPs briefs
The High Impact Practices in Family Planning (HIPs) team at USAID has developed briefs that synthesize the evidence and provide recommendations on how to implement selected HIPs.
- Financing Commodities and Services: Essential for meeting family planning needs (2014; PDF, 703KB) aims to help countries advance toward contraceptive security, focusing primarily on increasing funds for procurement. This brief also provides commentary on engaging the private sector to support a “total market approach” that serves individuals from all socioeconomic classes.
- Drug Shops and Pharmacies: Sources for family planning commodities and information (2013; PDF, 796KB) describes the importance of these outlets for distributing commodities and information and outlines key issues for planning and implementing programs to support pharmacy and drug shop staff.
- Supply Chain Management: Investing in contraceptive security and strengthening health systems (2012; PDF, 695KB) describes the importance and impact of strengthening supply chain management (SCM) and provides examples of critical implementation elements. The brief highlights why SCM of contraceptives and related products, such as the equipment, instruments, and supplies required to provide long-acting and permanent methods (LA/ PMs), is critical to the effective operation of family planning programs.
Two briefs highlight the USAID | DELIVER PROJECT’s work improving contraceptive security in West and Central Africa.
- Collaboration with the West African Health Organization (WAHO) to Improve Contraceptive Security (English [2015; PDF, 180KB]) (Français [2015; PDF, 218KB]) This brief summarizes some of the achievements resulting from the project’s strategic partnership with WAHO and demonstrates how these achievements have led to greater support for contraceptive security.
- Early Warning System for Contraceptives in West and Central Africa Improves Supply Availability (2015; PDF, 610KB) This brief outlines how the Early Warning System for contraceptives has improved the visibility and monitoring of contraceptive stock status, and mitigated critical contraceptive stock imbalances in the project’s 13 target countries.
Advance Family Planning's new case studies illustrate the stories behind several of 2015's advocacy "wins" (discrete policy or funding advancements) and their impacts. They depict not only the process leading to significant advocacy achievements, but also capture indirect outcomes and nuances of collaborative efforts. Each extracts lessons learned and next steps for future advocacy:
- Advocacy in Zanzibar Leads to Reduction in Family Planning Commodity Stock-outs (PDF; 2015, 1.82MB): The African Women Leaders Network for Reproductive Health and Family Planning (AWLN), an AFP regional partner, worked with local stakeholders and government representatives to eliminate supply chain bottlenecks and ensure reliable contraceptive access.
- Finding Alternative Pathways for Contraceptive Commodities to Reach Users in Uganda (PDF; 2015, 513KB): Family planning stakeholders worked with donors and the Ministry of Health to develop an "alternative distribution" strategy to avoid stockouts frequently encountered by private-sector facilities.